Zygophyllum album

Zygophyllum album L.

Common Names

خريزى، خريزه (Arabic), خريزه (خُريزه)، خريه (خِرية) (Arabic), حديده (حِديده) (Arabic), يوال، خريسه، خريس (Arabic), طرطير، قلام، بلبل (Arabic)

Languages: English



Zygophyllum album is a perennial mealy-canescent low shrub with many branched stems.  The leaves are 2-foliolate, whitish, mealy-pubescent, with cylindrical to obovoid and fleshy leaflets. The flowers are small with white and clawed petals; they grow solitary and axillary. The fruit is a pear-shaped, 5-lobed 6-9 x 5-7 mm capsule. The seeds are elliptic, and tuberculate.



Height: 25-50 cm.

Ecology and Distribution

Global Distribution

Spain, North Africa, East Mediterranean Region, Sinai, Southern Arabia, Socotra, Tropical East Africa.

Distribution in Egypt

Libyan Desert Oases, Nubian Desert Oases, Mareotic Sector, North Sinai, Libyan Desert, Nubian Desert, Arabian Desert, Isthmic Desert, Galala Desert, Gebel Oweinat, South Red Sea Coast, North Red Sea Coast, Mountainous Southern Sinai, Libyan Desert (Location: Quattara depression), Gulf of Aqaba Coast (Location: Nabaq).


Coastal and Inland Saline Sandy Soils.

Life Expectancy



  • Zygophyllum proliferum Forssk. (synonym)
  • Zygophyllum amblyocarpum Baker (synonym)
  • Zygophyllum album L. var. amblyocarpum (Baker) Hadidi (synonym)


F.N., Hepper., & I. Friis. (1994).  The Plants of Pehr Forsskal's "Flora Ageyptiaco-Arabica". Kew: Kew Publishing..
L., Boulos. (Submitted).  Flora of Egypt. Cairo: Al Hadara Publishing..
V., Täckholm. (1974).  Students’ Flora of Egypt, 2nd Ed. Cairo: Cairo University Press..
V., Täckholm., & M. Drar. (Submitted).  Flora of Egypt. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science. Cairo: Cairo University Press..